Dernière mise à jour mercredi 25 mai 2016, par
Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien - IPHC
Département Ecologie, Physiologie et Ethologie - DEPE
Ecophysiologie et changements environnementaux
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CNRS
UMR 7178 CNRS/Université De Strasbourg - UDS
23 rue Becquerel, 67087 Strasbourg cedex 2, France
Contact : Xavier Meyer
Titre de la thèse : Does complexity in behavioural organization allow seabirds to adapt to changes in their environment ?
Période : 2013-2016
Encadrant(s) : Yan Ropert-Coudert (CEBC/Université de la Rochelle), Cédric Sueur, Andrew MacIntosh (University of Kyoto)
Fractal patterns are found everywhere in nature (e.g. in the shapes of clouds, coastlines). Such patterns are also know to emerge in spatial and temporal sequences of animal movement, which exhibits self-similarity accross a range of measurement scales.Thus, it is a fundamental principle happening over both short and long time periods and one future challenge in understanding animal behaviour is to identify how much of this behavioural organization depends of intrinsic (animal) versus extrinsic (environmental) conditions. To describe the structure of behaviour as it occurs through time, studies used the term "complexity" to refer to the correlation structure of the time series. Moreover, complexity (or roughness in mathematics) is ubiquitous in nature and considered biologically adaptive because it is error tolerant, allowing organisms to cope with stress and unpredictable environment. Thus, fractal patterns may provide an optimal solution to foraging problems.
Fractal analysis, which examined the degree to which objects/processes are self-similar (fractal-like) by comparing measurements of objects/processes at different resolutions, is an emerging tool to reveal complexity of animal activity pattern. Traditional metrics usually used are consider to be less sensitive to changes than fractal analysis. Thus, application of fractal tools does open up opportunities for more subtle and sensitive investigations of species used as indicators for climate and environmental change, such as marine birds.
Some fundamentals questions relative to behavioural organizations remains unsolved (as described in introduction). It is, for instance, necessary to understand how foraging strategies evolve to be adaptive to quick changes occurring in the environment, but also to examine how individual’s characteristics could affect this modulation of behavioural complexity. To summarize, I will investigate if behavioural complexity modulation is pertinent to buffer environmental change.
I will work on marine top-predator species that are commonly used as indicators of climate and environmental change : two penguin species exposed to various environmental challenges and a suite of Procellariiforms which have different body characteristics, foraging strategies...More precisely, I will look on :
1) Behavioural complexity in Adelie Penguins’ diving behaviour (Pygoscelis adeliae) under various sea-ice conditions ;
2) Behavioural complexity in Little Penguins’ diving behaviour (Eudyptula minor) facing annual and intra-seasonal variations in thermal structuration of the water column they foraged in ;
This work (only concerning Adélie Penguin) will be a part of the AMMER project (IPEV project N°1091) that receives the financial and logistic supports of the French Polar Institute (IPEV), the Terres Australes et Antarctiques Françaises (TAAF) and the WWF-UK.
Sueur C., Class B., Hamm C., Meyer X., Pelé M. (2013) Different risk thresholds in pedestrian road crossing behaviour : a comparison of French and Japanese approaches. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 58, 59-63. DOI : 10.1016/j.aap.2013.04.027
Ropert-Coudert Y., Kato A., Meyer X., Pellé M., MacIntosh A.J.J., Angelier F., Chastel O., Widmann M., Arthur B., Raymond B., Raclot T. (2015) A complete breeding failure in an Adélie penguin colony correlates with unusual and extreme environmental events. Ecography, 38, 111-113. DOI : 10.1111/ecog.01182
Meyer X., MacIntosh A.J.J., Kato A., Chiaradia A., Ropert-Coudert Y. (2015) Hydrodynamic handicaps and organizational complexity in the foraging behaviour of two free-ranging penguin species. Animal Biotelemetry, 3:25 DOI:10.1186/s40317-015-0061-8
Meyer X. , MacIntosh A.J.J., Kato A., Chiaradia A., Sueur C., Ropert-Coudert Y. Fractal time series analysis : new insight into ecological processes. 1res journées du GDR Ecostat, Lyon, France, March 12-13 2015. Oral presentation.
Meyer X. , MacIntosh A.J.J., Kato A., Chiaradia A., Sueur C., Ropert-Coudert Y. Hydrodynamic handicaps imposed by animal-attached recording devices alter structural complexity of penguin dive sequences. 11th Ecology & Behaviour meeting, Toulouse, France, May 18-21 2015. Oral presentation.
Ropert-Coudert Y., Kato A., Meyer X.*, Pellé M., MacIntosh A.J.J., Angelier F., Chastel O., Widmann M., Arthur B., Raymond B., Raclot T. Our Iceberg may not be melting but the wind is definitely turning ! 2nd World Seabird Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, October 26-30 2015. Poster. *Presenting author
Meyer X., MacIntosh A.J.J., Kato A., Chiaradia A., Mattern T., Sueur C., Ropert-Coudert Y. Shallow divers in deep waters : does bathymetry lead to behavioural stochasticity ? 2nd World Seabird Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, October 26-30 2015. Oral Presentation.
Meyer X.. Does complexity in behavioral organization allow penguins to adapt to changes in their environment ? Behaviour, Evolution, Ecology and Physiology Seminar Strasbourg (BEEPSS), Strasbourg, France, March 4 2016. Oral Presentation.
Meyer X.. Does complexity in behavioral organization allow penguins to adapt to changes in their environment ? Séminaire Prédateurs Supérieurs Marins, Chizé, France, May 23 2016. Oral Presentation.
Public understanding of science
Meyer X. . Walking on the wild side : should I stay or should I go. Invited talk , Phillip Island Nature Park, Australia, November 2013.
Meyer X. , Schull Q. Travailler la tête en bas : l’étude des manchots dans l’hémisphère sud. Journée des doctorants, Strasbourg, France, June 2014.
Chasseurs de lumière. Fête de la Science, Strasbourg, France, October 2015.
Meyer X., Ropert-Coudert Y. Programme 1091 IPEV "l’AMMER" : les manchots adélie comme bioplateformes de l’environnement. Inauguration du projet pédagogique "Embarquez en Antarctique", Strasbourg, France, November 2015.
Meyer X.. Does complexity in behavioural organization allow seabirds to adapt to changes in their environment ? My Thesis in 180 seconds, IPHC Student Symposium, Strasbourg, France, January 2016.
Meyer X.. Travailler la tête en bas : un été en Antarctique. Talk through the pedagogic project "Embarquez en Antarctique", primary school, Willer-sur-Thur, France, May 18 2016
Phylogeny & Anatomy of Metazoa (pratical works), Licence 2, Faculty of Biology, Université de Strasbourg, January-May 2015 and January-May 2016.
André Chiaradia Phillip Island Nature Park, Research Department - Australia.
APECS-France, International Bio-logging Society, British Ornithologists’ Union, British Ecological Society.